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Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma
Optimum Volume: 1 mL
|5d; unstable*||6 months||1 year|
Reporting units: pg/mL
Biological or Clinical Significance:
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) includes two distinct proteins, IL-1α and IL-1β, that play central roles in acute and chronic inflammation, both locally and systemically. Human IL-1β is synthesized as a procytokine (269 amino acid) that is cleaved by IL-1β -converting enzyme to mature IL-1β (153 amino acid, 17 kDa) plus a prosegment.
IL-1β is produced primarily by monocytes and macrophages but also by astrocytes, oligodendroglia, adrenal cortical cells, NK cells, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, megakaryocytes, platelets, neurons, neutrophils, osteoblasts, Schwann cells, trophoblasts, T cells, and fibroblasts. The most extensively studied function of IL-1β is initiation of inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin or a variety of non-microbial inflammatory substances induces production of IL-1, which is released into the local environment.
IL-1 is associated with bone formation and remodeling, insulin secretion, appetite regulation, fever induction, neuronal phenotype development, and IGF/GH physiology.
Principle of Test Method:
The IL-1β assay is a solid-phase ELISA that employs the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay principle. *Note: Refrigerated stability is 5 days for serum and is limited/ustable for EDTA plasma.
1. Willis C, Morris JM, Danis V, Gallery EDM. Cytokine production by peripheral blood monocytes during the normal human ovulatory menstrual cycle. Hum Repro 2003;18:1173-1178.
2. Danis VA, Millington M, Hyland VJ, Grennan D. Cytokine production by normal human monocytes: inter-subject variation and relationship to an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) gene polymorphism. Clin Exp Immunol 1995; 99:303-310.