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Analyte: Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1
Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA plasma
Optimum Volume: 1.0 mL
|EDTA -1 day||N.A.||Serum- 2 years|
Reporting units: pg/mL
Biological or Clinical Significance:
Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2), also known as monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF), is a member of the CC subgroup of the chemokine superfamily. MCP-1 has the ability to act as a potent chemoattractant and activator of monocytes/macrophages, NK cells, T cells, eosinophils, basophils, and hepatic stellate cells. The human MCP-1 cDNA encodes a 99 amino acid (aa) residue precursor protein with a 23 aa hydrophobic signal peptide that is cleaved to generate the 76 aa mature protein.
MCP-1 is induced by any inflammatory mediators such as LPS, IL-1, TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-6, and IL-4. Several cell types have been shown to produce MCP-1 including mononuclear cells, mast cells, T cells, osteoblasts, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, bone marrow stromal cells, epithelial cells, microglia, astrocytes, and smooth muscle cells. MCP-1 is a ligand for the seven transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor CCR2. As is common for chemokines, MCP-1 shares the CCR2 receptor with several other ligands including MCP-2 (CCL8), MCP-3 (CCL7), MCP-4 (CCL13), and murine MCP-5. Some studies suggest that other MCP-1 receptors may exist. Although the physiological relevance is unclear, at high concentration in vitro MCP-1 binds and activates the receptor CCR1.
Several different lines of evidence utilizing in vivo animal models suggest that MCP-1 is an important player in inflammatory processes. A correlation between the levels of human MCP-1 and inflammatory pathologies may suggest similar functions in humans. Elevated MCP-1 levels have been associated with sepsis, Crohn’s disease, lupus nephritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pancreatitis, and atherosclerosis. MCP-1 is also up regulated in several cancers including gastric carcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, malignant glioma, and ovarian, pancreatic, bladder, and breast cancers.
Principle of Test Method:
The MCP-1 assay is a solid-phase ELISA that employs the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay principle.
1. de Lemos JA, Morrow DA, Sabatine MS, Murphy SA, Gibson CM. Antman EM, McCabe CH, Cannon CP, Braunwald E. Association between plasma levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein and long-term clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 2003; 107:690-695.
2. Störk S, Baumann K, von Schacky C, Angerer P. The effect of 17?-estradiol on MCP-1 serum levels in postmenopausal women. Cardiovasc. Res. 2002; 53:642-649.