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MCP-1 (Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1) -ELISA

Analyte: Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1

Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA plasma

Optimum Volume: 1.0 mL

Stability:

2-8°C -20°C -70°C
EDTA -1 day N.A. Serum- 2 years

Reporting units: pg/mL

Method: ELISA

Biological or Clinical Significance:

Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2), also known as monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF), is a member of the CC subgroup of the chemokine superfamily.  MCP-1 has the ability to act as a potent chemoattractant and activator of monocytes/macrophages, NK cells, T cells, eosinophils, basophils, and hepatic stellate cells.  The human MCP-1 cDNA encodes a 99 amino acid (aa) residue precursor protein with a 23 aa hydrophobic signal peptide that is cleaved to generate the 76 aa mature protein. 

MCP-1 is induced by any inflammatory mediators such as LPS, IL-1, TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-6, and IL-4.  Several cell types have been shown to produce MCP-1 including mononuclear cells, mast cells, T cells, osteoblasts, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, bone marrow stromal cells, epithelial cells, microglia, astrocytes, and smooth muscle cells.  MCP-1 is a ligand for the seven transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor CCR2.  As is common for chemokines, MCP-1 shares the CCR2 receptor with several other ligands including MCP-2 (CCL8), MCP-3 (CCL7), MCP-4 (CCL13), and murine MCP-5.  Some studies suggest that other MCP-1 receptors may exist.  Although the physiological relevance is unclear, at high concentration in vitro MCP-1 binds and activates the receptor CCR1. 

Several different lines of evidence utilizing in vivo animal models suggest that MCP-1 is an important player in inflammatory processes.  A correlation between the levels of human MCP-1 and inflammatory pathologies may suggest similar functions in humans.  Elevated MCP-1 levels have been associated with sepsis, Crohn’s disease, lupus nephritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pancreatitis, and atherosclerosis.  MCP-1 is also up regulated in several cancers including gastric carcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, malignant glioma, and ovarian, pancreatic, bladder, and breast cancers.

Principle of Test Method:

The MCP-1 assay is a solid-phase ELISA that employs the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay principle.

References:

1. de Lemos JA, Morrow DA, Sabatine MS, Murphy SA, Gibson CM. Antman EM, McCabe CH, Cannon CP, Braunwald E. Association between plasma levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein and long-term clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 2003; 107:690-695.
2. Störk S, Baumann K, von Schacky C, Angerer P. The effect of 17?-estradiol on MCP-1 serum levels in postmenopausal women. Cardiovasc. Res. 2002; 53:642-649.

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