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VCAM-1 (Vascular Adhesion Molecule-1)

Analyte: Vascular Adhesion Molecule-1

Specimen Type: Serum, Inquire for additional option(s)

Optimum Volume: 0.5 mL

Stability:

2-8°C -20°C -70°C
6 days 1 month 18 months

Reporting units: ng/mL

Method: ELISA

Biological or Clinical Significance:

Human Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is a 100-110 kDa1 715 amino acid type I transmembrane glycoprotein typically characterized by the presence of seven C2-type immunoglobulin (Ig) domains.  Its extracellular region is 674 amino acids in length, followed by a 22 amino acid transrnembrane segment and a 19 amino acid cytoplasmic tail.  In the extracellular region, there are multiple N-linked glycosylation sites and each C2 domain is closed by a disulfide bridge.  There is considerable interspecies VCAM-1 homology, with mouse and rat VCAM-1 showing approximately 75% amino acid identity to human VCAM-1.  Notably, the short 19 amino acid cytoplasmic tail is absolutely conserved, mouse to human to rat.  A number of variants of VCAM-1 are known to occur, all of which are likely the result of alternate gene splicing.  In particular, a human six Ig domain molecule is known and in rabbits, an eight Ig domain form has been identified.  There is also a three C2 domain, 43 kDa GPI-linked form of VCAM-1.  Although it binds known VCAM-1 ligands (or co-receptors), its function is unclear.  Cells known to express VCAM-1 include neurons, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and macrophages.

Soluble VCAM-1 has been identified in culture supernates, blood and cerebrospinal fluid.  The exact mechanism by which VCAM-1 is generated is unknown; it may, however, involve both proteolytic processing and alternate splicing.

Functionally, VCAM-1 binds to both a4ßD1 (VLA-4) and a4ß7 (LPAM-1) integrins.  These integrins (or VCAM-1 ligands) are expressed on a variety of cells, with VLA-4 found on all leukocytes with the exception of neutrophils.  Because of this, VCAM-1/VCAM-1 ligand interactions are undoubtedly key events in the rate and timing of leukocyte extravasation. Other roles proposed for VCAM-1 include the regulation of osteoclastogenesis via a cell-to-cell contact mechanism and the induction of sickle cell adherence to vascular endothelial cells during hypoxemia.

Principle of Test Method:

The VCAM-1 immunoassay is a solid phase ELISA that is designed to measure soluble VCAM in cell cutture supernates, serum and plasma.

References:

1. Constans J, Conri C. Circulating markers of endothelial function in cardiovascular disease. Clin Chim Acta 2006; 368:33-47.
2. Jager A, van Hinsbergh VWM, Kostense PJ, Emeis JJ, Nijpeis G, Dekker JM, Heine RJ, Bouter LM, Sehouwer CDA. Increased levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 are associated with risk of cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes: The Hoorn study. Diabetes 2000; 49:485-491.

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