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GIP (Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide)

Analyte: Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide

Specimen Type: Plasma from BD P700 or P800, EDTA Plasma with preservatives; contact PBI for collection instructions

Optimum Volume: 0.5 mL

Stability:

2-8°C -20°C -70°C
3 hours 3 days 1 year

Reporting units: pmol/L

Method: ELISA

Biological or Clinical Significance:

GIP, also known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide, or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, is a 42 amino acid peptide hormone synthesized in and secreted from K cells in the intestinal epithelium. The gut endocrine K cells sense nutrient intake and secret GIP following ingestion of the nutrients, especially fats. Unlike GLP-1, which exerts multiple non-incretin activities in the regulation of blood glucose, the primary action of GIP is the stimulation of glucose-dependent insulin secretion. GIP may also play a role in adipocyte biology and it seems to act to regulate body weight. GIP is rapidly inactivated both in vitro and in vivo by the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), the enzyme which also cleaves GLP-1 and GLP-2, rapidly inactivates GIP. The majority of circulating GIP immunoreactivity in both the fasting and postprandial states corresponds to the biologically inactive GIP (amino acids 3-42).

Principle of Test Method:

The GIP assay is a solid-phase ELISA designed to measure human GIP in serum and plasma. It employs the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay principle.

References:

1. Hinke SA, Gelling RW, Pederson RA, Manhart S, Nian C, Demuth HU, McIntosh CH. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV-Resistant [D-Ala2]Glucose- Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP) improves glucose tolerance in normal and obese diabetic rats. Diabetes 2002; 51:652-661.
2. Stock S, Leichner P, Wong ACK, Chatei MA, Kieffer TJ, Bloom SR, Chanoine JP. Ghrelin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent instulinotropic polypeptide, and hunger responses to a mixed meal in anorexic, obese, and control female adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:2161-2168.
3. Kazakos KA, Sarafidis PA, Yovos JG. The impact of diabetic autonomic neuropathy on the incretin effect. Med Sci Monit 2008;14:CR213-220.
4. Vollmer K, Holst JJ, Baller B, Ellrichmann M, Nauck MA, Schmidt WE, Meier JJ. Predictors in incretin concentrations in subjects with normal, impaired, and diabetic glucose tolerance. Diabetes 2008; 57:678-687.

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