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HMGB1 (High Motility Group Box 1 Protein)

Analyte: High Mobility Group Box 1

Specimen Type: Serum

Optimum Volume: 0.5 mL

Stability:

2-8°C -20°C -70°C
3 days N.A.* N.A.*

Reporting units: ng/mL

Method: ELISA

Biological or Clinical Significance:

HMGB1 (high mobility group box1 protein) is an approximately 30 kDa protein that is the major component of the non-histone nuclear protein group.  HMGB1 is a transcriptional regulator and is normally present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of mammalian cells.  Extracellularly, it has cytokine activities.

HMGB1 plays an important role in disease pathogenesis, for example, in malignant diseases.  In case of a tumor, the oxygen supply of cells could be interrupted.  This leads to cell death (necrosis) and release of HMGB1, which causes the formation of angiogenic blood vessels in the adjacent tumor environment towards the tumor.  These vessels assure tumor survival and further growth.

In vitro studies have shown that quantitative determination of HMGB1 concentrations make it possible to differentiate between pathological cell death (necrosis) and physiological cell death (apoptosis).  In necrosis, much higher values of HMGB1 are observed. 

HMGB1 is a late-acting pro-inflammatory cytokine that is secreted actively by inflammatory cells.  Thus, HMGB1 plays an important role in the late phase of septic shock.  In animal experiments, it has been shown that the inhibition of HMGB1, even in the late phase of septic shock, significantly enhanced the survival rate of rodents.  HMGB1 acts by binding to RAGE (receptor for advanced glycated end products) and has a similar pro-inflammatory effect to the cytokines TNF-α and IL-6.  Elevated levels can also be found in the serum of septic patients.

HMGB1 concentration in blood is increased in many other diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, acute lung injury, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Principle of Test Method:

The HMGB1 ELISA assay is a solid phase sandwich-enzyme immunoassay designed to measure HMGB1 in serum, plasma, cell culture supernatants, cerebrospinal fluid and bronchoalveolar fluid.  The wells of the microtiter strips are coated with purified anti-HMGB1 antibody.  HMGB1 in the sample binds specifically to the immobilized antibody and is recognized by a second enzyme-conjugated antibody.  After the substrate reaction, the concentration is determined by the color intensity when read at a wavelength of 450 nm with a correction wavelength of 650 nm.

*Please contact PBI for stability information.

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