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MIP-3β (Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 beta)

Analyte: Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 beta

Specimen Type: Serum

Optimum Volume: 0.4 mL

Stability:

2-8°C -20°C -70°C
6 days 23 days 2 years

Reporting units: pg/mL

Method: ELISA

Biological or Clinical Significance:

MIP-3 beta also referred to as CCL19, ELC, Exodus-3, and SCYA19 is a CC chemokine that is expressed in secondary lymphoid organs like the thymus, lymph nodes as well as in activated bone marrow stromal cells. CCL19 signals via the CCR7 receptors and is a strong chemoattractant for T and B lymphocytes but not for monocytes and granulocytes.  MIP3 beta plays an important role in lymphocyte trafficking by promoting infiltration of T-cells and dendritic cells into lymphoid tissue. MIP-3 beta also promotes T-cell homing into non-lymphoid tissue and may stimulate inflammatory responses.  Thus, CCL19/CCL21/CCR7 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosis, diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, as well as coronary artery disease.  Elevated MIP-3 beta levels have been observed in many of these diseases as well as in HIV and HCV infected patients.  Systemic lupus erythematosis may be the most relevant as elevated MIP-3 beta along with elevated IP-10 and MCP-1 levels showed a strong correlation with current disease activity.

Principle of Test Method:

The human MIP-3 beta is a solid-phase ELISA that may be used to measure MIP-3 beta in cell culture supernates, serum, plasma, and urine. This assay employs the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique.

References:

1. Kim CH, Pelus LM, White JR, Applebaum E, Johanson K, Broxmeyer HE. CK beta-11/macrophage inflammatory protein-3 beta/EBI1-ligand chemokine is an efficacious chemoattractant for T and B cells. J Immunol. 1998 Mar 1:160(5):2418-24.
2. Marsland BJ, Bättig P, Bauer M, et al. CCL19 and CCL21 induce a potent proinflammatory differentiation program in licensed dendritic cells. 2005 Immunity. 22:493–505.
3. Flanagan K, Moroziewicz D, Kwak H, et al. The lymphoid chemokine CCL21 costimulates naive T cell expansion and Th1 polarization of non-regulatory CD4+ T cells. 2004 Cell Immunol. 231:75–84.
4. Bonacchi A, Petrai I, Defranco RM, et al. The chemokine CCL21 modulates lymphocyte recruitment and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. 2003 Gastroenterology 125:1060–76.
5. Rangel-Moreno J, Moyron-Quiroz JE, Hartson L, et al. Pulmonary expression of CXC chemokine ligand 13, CC chemokine ligand 19, and CC chemokine ligand 21 is essential for local immunity to influenza. 2007 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 104:10577–82.
6. Pickens SR, Chamberlain ND, Volin MV, Pope M, Mandelin AM, and Shahrara S. Characterization of CCL19 and CCL21 in Rheumatoid Arthritis. ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM 2011 63(4): 914–922.
7. Bauer JW, Petri M, Batliwalla FM, Koeuth T, Wilson T, Slattery S, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A, Gregersen PK, Behrens TW, and Baechler C, Interferon-Regulated Chemokines as Biomarkers of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity: A Validation Study 2009 Arthritis Rheum. 60(10): 3098–310.7.
8. Damås JK, Smith C, Øie E, et al. Enhanced expression of the homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 in clinical and experimental atherosclerosis: possible pathogenic role in plaque destabilization. 2007 Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 27:614–20.
9. Cicinnati VR, Kang J, Sotiropoulos GC, Hilgard P, Frilling A, Broelsch CE, Gerken G, Beckebaum S. Altered chemotactic response of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells from patients with chronic hepatitis C: role of alpha interferon. J Gen Virol. 2008 89:1243-53.
10. Yan XJ, Dozmorov I, Li W, Yancopoulos S, Sison C, Centola M, Jain P, Allen SL, Kolitz JE, Rai KR, Chiorazzi N, Sherry B. Identification of outcome-correlated cytokine clusters in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. 2011 Blood 118:5201-10.
11. Fevang B, Yndestad A, Damås JK, Halvorsen B, Holm AM, Beiske K, Aukrust P, and Frøland SS Chemokines and common variable immunodeficiency; possible contribution of CCL19, CCL21 and CCR7 to immune dysregulation. 2009 Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 158: 237–245.
12. Bauer JW, Baechler EC, Petri M, Batliwalla FM, Crawford D, et al. (2006) Elevated Serum Levels of Interferon-Regulated Chemokines Are Biomarkers for Active Human Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. 2006 PLoS Med 3(12): e491. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030491.

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