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Insulin

Analyte: Insulin

Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma, Plasma from BD P100 or P700 or P800, Inquire for additional option(s)

Optimum Volume: 0.5 mL

Stability:

2-8°C -20°C -70°C
6 days 6 months 7 years

Reporting units: uU/mL

Method: Electrochemiluminescence

Biological or Clinical Significance:

Human insulin is a polypeptide hormone originating in the beta cells of the pancreas and serving as a principal regulator for the storage and production of carbohydrates. Its secretion is normally stimulated by increases in the amount of glucose in circulation. This leads to higher insulin levels and more rapid tissue-assimilation of glucose, followed by a decline in the insulin level as the glucose level subsides.

Type I diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease that leads to destruction of the beta cells, and loss of the insulin secretory response to increased circulating glucose levels. Type II diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by insulin resistance, i.e., there is a reduction in the ability of the cell to respond to increased circulating insulin. Measurement of circulating levels of insulin is not helpful in the diagnosis or monitoring of either type of diabetes. Insulin tends to circulate at inappropriately high levels in patients with insulin-secreting pancreatic tumors.

Principle of Test Method:

The human insulin assay is an automated sandwich immunoassay using electrochemiluminescent detection.

References:

1. Lebovitz E. Horald, et. al. Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus and Related Disorders. American Diabetes Association. Third edition. 1998; 186-203.
2. Clark PM. Assays for insulin, proinsulin(s) and C-peptide. Ann Clin Biochem 1999; 36:541-564.
3. Zethelius B, Bybery L, Hales CN, Lithell H, Berne C. Proinsulin and acute insulin response independently predict Type 2 diabetes mellitus in men – report from 27 years of follow-up study. Diabetologia 2003; 46:20-26.
4. Folsom AR, Jacobs DR, Wagenknecht LE, Winkhart SP, Yunis C, Hilner JE, Savage PJ, Smith DE, Flack JM. Increase in fasting insulin and glucose over seven years with increasing weight and inactivity of young adults. Am J Epidemiol. 1996; 144:235 – 246.

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