Biomarker Menu

Biomarker Category: Kidney Injury

α-1 Microglobulin

Analyte: alpha-1 Microglobulin
Specimen Type: Urine
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Alpha-1 microglobulin is member of the lipocalins superfamily of proteins with 30–35 members distributed among animals, plants, and bacteria. The members of the superfamily have a highly conserved three-dimensional...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/302

ADMA (Asymmetric Dimethylarginine)

Analyte: Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine
Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase. It is formed during proteolysis of methylated proteins and removed by renal excretion or metabolic degradation by the enzyme dimethylarginine...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/80

αGST (Alpha Glutathione S-Transferase)

Analyte: Alpha-Glutathione S-Transferase
Specimen Type: Urine; first morning void preserved with stabilizing buffer
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Of significance for renal diagnostics, alpha GST is found in the proximal tubule region of the kidney, whereas the other common isoform, pi GST, is confined mainly to the distal tubules. Events that precipitate...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/231

Beta-2-Microglobulin

Analyte: Beta-2-Microglobulin
Specimen Type: Serum, Inquire for additional option(s)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Beta-2-microglobulin (β2-M) M is a small globular peptide with a molecular weight of 11800 D. It consists of 100 amino acids with a disulfide-linked loop between amino acid 25 and 81 and its tertiary structure...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/82

Beta-2-Microglobulin, Urine

Analyte: Beta-2-Microglobulin
Specimen Type: Urine (protease inhibitor coctail recommended - contact PBI for further info)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Beta-2-microglobulin (ß2-M) M is a small globular peptide with a molecular weight of 11800 D. It consists of 100 amino acids with a disulfide-linked loop between amino acid 25 and 81 and its tertiary structure...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/188

Clusterin (APO J)

Analyte: Clusterin
Specimen Type: Urine
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Clusterin (also know as apolipoprotein J, sulfated glycoprotein 2 (SGP-2), TRPM-2, and SP-40) is a secreted multifunctional protein that was named for its ability to induce cellular clustering.  It binds...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/291

Creatinine, Serum

Analyte: Creatinine
Specimen Type: For information on this assay, please contact PBI.
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Creatinine is a waste product formed by the spontaneous dehydration of body creatine. Most of the body creatine is found in muscle tissue where it is present as creatinine phosphate and serves as a high-energy...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/94

Creatinine, Urine

Analyte: Creatinine
Specimen Type: Urine *see note
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Creatinine is a waste product formed by the spontaneous dehydration of body creatine. Most of the body creatine is found in muscle tissue where it is present as creatinine phosphate and serves as a high-energy...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/310

CTGF (Connective Tissue Growth Factor)

Analyte: Connective Tissue Growth Factor
Specimen Type: Serum
Biological or Clinical Significance:

CTGF, a member of the CCN protein family, is relevant in many physiological and pathological processes.  Both clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that CTGF is overexpressed in fibrotic human...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/314

Cystatin C, Serum

Analyte: Cystatin C
Specimen Type: Serum, Inquire for additional option(s)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Cystatin C is a small, 13 kDa, non-glycosylated basic protein belonging to the cystatin super-family of cysteine protease inhibitors. Cystatin C is produced by virtually all nucleated cells, and is present in...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/22

Cystatin C, Urine

Analyte: Cystatin C
Specimen Type: Urine (stabilzer recommended - contact PBI for further info)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Cystatin C is a small, 13 kDa, non-glycosylated basic protein belonging to the cystatin super-family of cysteine protease inhibitors. Cystatin C is produced by virtually all nucleated cells, and is present in...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/221

IL-18 (Interleukin 18), Urine

Analyte: Interleukin-18
Specimen Type: Urine
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a 18kDa novel cytokine which is identified as a costimulatory factor for production of interferon-γ (IFN- γ) in response to toxic shock. It shares functional similarities with IL-12....
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/422

KIM-1 (Kidney Injury Molecule-1), Urine

Analyte: Kidney Injury Molecule 1
Specimen Type: Urine (first morning void with stabilizer(s) recommended); Please contact PBI for collection instructions
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Acute kidney injury has been defined as a rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine are not specific or sensitive enough for the diagnosis of acute kidney injury because...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/190

Microalbumin (Albumin), Urine

Analyte: Albumin
Specimen Type: Urine (unpreserved)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Albumin is a non-glycosylated protein with a molecular weight of 66,000 daltons. It is synthesized in liver parenchymal cells at a rate of 14 g/day. Quantitatively, albumin is the most important protein component...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/140

NAG (N-Acetyl-β-D Glucosaminidase), Urine

Analyte: N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase
Specimen Type: Urine (addition of stabilizer recommended); please contact PBI for collection instructions
Biological or Clinical Significance:

N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) is a lysosomal enzyme present in proximal tubular cells. It specifically cleaves N-acetyl-glucosamine from larger precursors. It has a molecular weight of approximately 200...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/145

NGAL (Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin), Serum

Analyte: Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin
Specimen Type: For information on this assay, please contact PBI.
Biological or Clinical Significance:
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/207

NGAL (Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin), Urine

Analyte: Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin
Specimen Type: Urine (first morning void preserved with stabilizer recommended); Please contact PBI for collection instructions
Biological or Clinical Significance:

NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; also called lipocalin 2, siderocalin and 24p3) belongs to the lipocalin family of proteins. These are typically small secreted proteins characterized by their...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/223

OA (Osteoactivin)

Analyte: Osteoactivin
Specimen Type: For information on this assay, please contact PBI.
Biological or Clinical Significance:
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/340

Protein (Total Protein), Urine

Analyte: Protein, total
Specimen Type: Urine without preservatives**
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Urine is formed by ultrafiltration of plasma across the glomerular capillary wall.  Proteins with a relative molecular mass over 40,000 are almost completely retained, while smaller substances...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/425

RBP-4 (Retinol Binding Protein 4)

Analyte: Retinol Binding Protein 4
Specimen Type: Urine
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), also known as plasma retinol-binding protein, is a lipocalin superfamily molecule that transports vitamin A (retinol) in the serum. Dietary retinol is metabolized to retinaldehyde,...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/229

Type IV Collagen

Analyte: Type IV Collagen
Specimen Type: Serum
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Chronic liver disease comprises a number of progressive disorders which culminate in liver cirrhosis and which are characterized by excessive deposition of collagen. Although various types of collagen (type I,...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/230

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