Biomarker Menu

Biomarker Category: Metabolic Disease

Adiponectin [HMW (High Molecular Weight)]

Analyte: Adiponectin, HMW
Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Adiponectin, also known as Acrp30, apM1, AdipoQ, and GBP28, is a 30 kDa glycoprotein that is secreted primarily by adipocytes and induces wide ranging paracrine and endocrine effects on metabolism and inflammation. ...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/308

Adiponectin, Total

Analyte: Adiponectin, Total
Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma, Inquire for additional option(s)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific protein with potential roles in glucose and lipid homeostasis. It is a member of the TNF superfamily. Adiponectin is induced during adipocyte differentiation and its secretion...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/2

Adipsin (Complement Factor D)

Analyte: Complement Factor D
Specimen Type: Serum, Inquire for addtional option(s)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

The complement system comprises approximately 30 circulating plasma proteins, as well as cell-surface receptors, that function as part of the innate and adaptive immune system to eliminate pathogens.  The...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/307

ADMA (Asymmetric Dimethylarginine)

Analyte: Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine
Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase. It is formed during proteolysis of methylated proteins and removed by renal excretion or metabolic degradation by the enzyme dimethylarginine...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/80

1,5 Anhydorglucitol (Glycomark™)

Analyte: 1,5-Anhydroglucitol
Specimen Type: Serum, Inquire for additional option(s)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a non-metabolizable glucose analogue (1-deoxy glucose) found in plasma. It is metabolically stable and like glucose it is reabsorbed in the renal tubule. Because of its structural...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/1

Beta 3-hydroxybutyrate

Analyte: Beta 3-hydroxybutyrate
Specimen Type: Serum
Biological or Clinical Significance:

The term ketone body describes 3 molecules: acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. Betahydroxybutyrate (also referred to as 3-hydroxybutyrate or 3-HB) is the result of acetoacetate reduction. Ketone...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/394

Bile Acid Profile

Analyte: Bile Acids
Specimen Type: For information on this assay, please contact PBI.
Biological or Clinical Significance:
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/434

Bile Acids, Total

Analyte: Total Bile Acids
Specimen Type: EDTA Plasma
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Bile acids are 24-carbon steroids formed from cholesterol in the liver.  Five major bile acid forms compose over 99% of the bile acid pool formed in body fluids. 

The liver synthesizes two primary...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/343

C-Peptide of Insulin

Analyte: C-Peptide of Insulin
Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma, P-800 Plasma (or equivalent)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

C-peptide of insulin is a metabolic by-product produced during the activation of insulin. Insulin is a polypeptide hormone originating in the beta cells of the pancreas and serving as a principal regulator for...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/412

C4 (7α-Hydroxy-4-cholestan-3-one)

Analyte: 7a-Hydroxy-4-cholestan-3-one
Specimen Type: For information on this assay, please contact PBI.
Biological or Clinical Significance:
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/379

Complement Factor D (Adipsin)

Analyte: Complement Factor D
Specimen Type: Serum, Inquire for addtional option(s)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

The complement system comprises approximately 30 circulating plasma proteins, as well as cell-surface receptors, that function as part of the innate and adaptive immune system to eliminate pathogens.  The...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/367

DPPIV Activity

Analyte: DPPIV Activity
Specimen Type: EDTA Plasma
Biological or Clinical Significance:

DPP-IV (dipeptidyl peptidase-4, DPP-IV, CD26) plays a major role in glucose metabolism.   It is a member of the class or proteases called prolyl peptidases, which cleave proteins after proline residues. ...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/416

Fructosamine

Analyte: Fructosamine
Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Glucose reversibly reacts with primary amino groups (e.g., on the side chain of lysine or the N-terminus of proteins) to form a Schiff base (aldimine), which in turn slowly rearranges (Amardori rearrangement)...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/25

Ghrelin, Acylated

Analyte: Ghrelin, Acylated
Specimen Type: EDTA Plasma with stabilizer; please contact PBI for collection instructions
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Ghrelin is an acylated peptide with growth-hormone-releasing function. It consists of 28 amino acids and the n-octanolylation of serine-3 position in the molecule is necessary for its bioactivity. Originally...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/26

Ghrelin, Total

Analyte: Ghrelin, Total
Specimen Type: EDTA Plasma with stabilizer; please contact PBI for collection instructions
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Ghrelin is an acylated peptide with growth-hormone-releasing function. It consists of 28 amino acids and the n-octanolylation of serine-3 position in the molecule is necessary for its bioactivity. Originally...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/27

GIP (Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide)

Analyte: Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
Specimen Type: Plasma from BD P700 or P800, EDTA Plasma with preservatives; contact PBI for collection instructions
Biological or Clinical Significance:

GIP, also known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide, or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, is a 42 amino acid peptide hormone synthesized in and secreted from K cells in the intestinal epithelium. The...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/28

GLP-1 (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1), Active

Analyte: Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Active
Specimen Type: Plasma from BD P700 or P800, EDTA Plasma with preservatives; contact PBI for collection instructions
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a 3.5 kD incretin hormone secreted primarily from the enteroglucagon-producing L-cells in the small intestine. The main actions of GLP-1 are stimulation of insulin secretion,...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/29

GLP-1 (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1), Total

Analyte: Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Total
Specimen Type: Plasma from BD P700 or P800, EDTA Plasma with preservatives; contact PBI for collection instructions
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a 3.5 kD incretin hormone secreted primarily from the enteroglucagon-producing L-cells in the small intestine. It is released in response to a meal and is highly potent in stimulating...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/30

GLP-2 (Glucagon-Like Peptide-2)

Analyte: Glucagon-Like Peptide 2
Specimen Type: Plasma from BD P700 or P800, EDTA Plasma with preservatives; contact PBI for collection instructions
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Proglucagon gene is expressed in both pancreatic A cell and intestinal L cell.  Tissue-specific posttranslational processing of proglucagon by prohormone convertase produces different proglucagon derived...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/111

Glucagon - ELISA

Analyte: Glucagon
Specimen Type: Plasma from BD P700 or P800, EDTA Plasma with preservatives; contact PBI for collection instructions
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Glucagon is a 29 amino acid peptide produced by the pancreas that plays a critical role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. The glucagon precursor mRNA is expressed by alpha cells (a-cells) of the pancreas,...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/405

Glucagon - RIA

Analyte: Glucagon
Specimen Type: Plasma from BD P700 or P800 or P100, EDTA Plasma with preservatives; contact PBI for collection instructions
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Glucagon is a 29 amino acids straight chain peptide secreted by the alpha cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Its action is antagonistic to insulin, which is secreted by the pancreatic beta cells....
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/31

Glucose

Analyte: Glucose
Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma, inquire for additional option(s)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Glucose is the major carbohydrate present in the peripheral blood. Oxidation of glucose is the major source of cellular energy in the body. Glucose derived from dietary sources is converted to glycogen for storage...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/32

Glucose, Urine

Analyte: Glucose
Specimen Type: Urine
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Glucose is the major carbohydrate present in the peripheral blood.  Oxidation of glucose is the major source of cellular energy in the body.  Glucose derived from dietary sources is converted to glycogen...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/423

Glycated Albumin

Analyte: Glycated Albumin
Specimen Type: Serum, plasma (EDTA, heparin, or citric acid)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Glycation is the result of a sugar molecule, such as fructose or glucose, bonding to a protein or lipid molecule without the controlling action of an enzyme. It is a haphazard process that impairs the functioning...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/112

HbA1c (Hemoglobin A1c)

Analyte: Hemoglobin A1c
Specimen Type: EDTA Whole Blood, Inquire for additional option(s)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Hemoglobin A1c is produced by nonenzymatic glycosylation of the terminal amino group (valine) of the β chain in hemoglobin. Since the reaction is controlled by mass action and the red cell is permeable to glucose,...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/35

Insulin

Analyte: Insulin
Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma, Plasma from BD P100 or P700 or P800, Inquire for additional option(s)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Human insulin is a polypeptide hormone originating in the beta cells of the pancreas and serving as a principal regulator for the storage and production of carbohydrates. Its secretion is normally stimulated...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/43

7-Ketocholesterol

Analyte: 7-ketocholesterol
Specimen Type: For information on this assay, please contact PBI.
Biological or Clinical Significance:
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/380

Lactate

Analyte: Lactate
Specimen Type: For information on this assay, please contact PBI.
Biological or Clinical Significance:
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/421

Leptin

Analyte: Leptin
Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Leptin is synthesized in adipocytes as a 16 kD molecule. The circulating level is directly proportional to the total amount of fat in the body, but it is primarily associated with the subcutaneous fat depot....
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/132

MDA (Malondialdehyde)

Analyte: Malondialdehyde
Specimen Type: Serum
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Lipid peroxidation is a well-defined mechanism of cellular damage in animals and plants. Lipid peroxides are unstable indicators of oxidative stress in cells that decompose to form more complex and reactive compounds...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/395

Oxyntomodulin

Analyte: Oxyntomodulin
Specimen Type: Plasma with the appropriate preservatice (see Additives & Collection Inst.)
Biological or Clinical Significance:

The structure of oxyntomodulin was elucidated in 1981.  It is a 37 amino acid peptide that contains the 29 amino acid sequence of glucagon followed by an eight amino acid carboxyterminal extension.

Many...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/224

P-amylase (Pancreatic Amylase)

Analyte: Pancreatic Amylase
Specimen Type: EDTA Plasma
Biological or Clinical Significance:

The α-amylases catalyze the hydrolytic degradation of polymeric carbohydrates such as amylase, amylopectin, and glycogen by cleaving 1,4-α-glucosidic bonds.  In polysaccharides and oligosaccharides,...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/428

Proinsulin

Analyte: Proinsulin
Specimen Type: For information on this assay, please contact PBI.
Biological or Clinical Significance:
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/158

PYY, 3-36 (Peptide YY, 3-36)

Analyte: Peptide YY (3-36)
Specimen Type: Plasma from BD P700 or P800, EDTA Plasma with preservatives; contact PBI for collection instructions
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Peptide YY (PYY) is a gut hormone structurally and functionally related to a family of peptides including neuropeptide Y and pancreatic polypeptide (PP).  The peptides of this family mediate their effects...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/211

PYY, Total (Peptide YY, Total)

Analyte: Peptide YY total
Specimen Type: Plasma from BD P700 or P800, EDTA Plasma with preservatives; contact PBI for collection instructions
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Peptide YY (PYY) is a gut hormone structurally and functionally related to a family of peptides including neuropeptide Y and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). The peptides of this family mediate their effects through...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/58

RBP-4 (Retinol Binding Protein 4)

Analyte: Retinol Binding Protein 4
Specimen Type: Urine
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), also known as plasma retinol-binding protein, is a lipocalin superfamily molecule that transports vitamin A (retinol) in the serum. Dietary retinol is metabolized to retinaldehyde,...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/229

Sucrose, Urine

Analyte: Sucrose
Specimen Type: Urine
Biological or Clinical Significance:

Sucrose (C12H22O11) is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose with an α-1,2-glycosidic linkage.  It is the most common food sweetener and the most important sugar in plants. ...
https://pacbio.com/biomarker/assay-detail/396

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